Artfare: Further Reading

Amnesty International, “Iraq: Stripped Naked and Humiliated by US Soldiers,” AI Index, April 25, 2003.

Sean Aday, “The real war will never get on television,” Media and conflict in the twenty-first century, ed. Philip Seib, (New York: Palgrave Macmillan US, 2005), 141-156.

Richard Bauman, Verbal Art as Performance (Rowling, MA: Newbury House, 1977).

Joe Bob Briggs, “Burning Museum? Ho Hum,” UPI, April 15, 2003.

John Burns, “Pillagers Strip Iraqi Museum of Its Treasures,” New York Times, April 12, 2003, accessed April 15, 2003,

Jeff Burzacott, ed., “The Great Sphinx’s Nose: Who Is Responsible?” Nile Magazine (May-June 2015): 24-33, accessed August 10, 2016,

CENTCOM, “Operation Iraqi Freedom Briefing,” April 9, 2003.

CENTCOM, “Operation Iraqi Freedom Briefing,” April 10, 2003,, accessed April 25, 2003,

CENTCOM, “Operation Iraqi Freedom Briefing,” April 16, 2003.

Daniela Dimitrova et al,”War on the Web the immediate news framing of Gulf War II,” The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics 10.1 (Winter 2005): 22-44.

Andre Emmerich, “Let the Market Protect Art,” Wall Street Journal, April 24, 2003.

Tom Engelhardt, “Plundering History,” Mother Jones, April 15, 2003, accessed April 15, 2003.

Shahira Fahmy and Daekyung Kim, “Picturing the Iraq War Constructing the Image of War in the British and US Press,” International Communication Gazette 70.6 (December 2008): 443-462.

Robert Fisk, “A Civilization Torn to Pieces,” Independent, April 13, 2003, accessed April 15, 2003.

Line Fransson, “Vi tok klærne og brente dem før vi dyttet dem ut med ‘tjuv’ skrevet på brystet,” Dagbladet, April 25, 2003, accessed May 4, 2003,

Bill Glauber, “Recovery of Looted Iraqi Treasures Is Slow,” Chicago Tribune, May 8, 2003, accessed May 9, 2003.

Andrew Gumbel and David Keys, “US Blamed for Failure to Stop Sacking of Museum,” Independent, April 14, 2003, accessed April 15, 2003.

Felicia Hughes-Freeland, “Introduction,” in Ritual, Performance, Media, ed. Felicia Hughes-Freeland (London: Routledge, 1998), 1–28.

Ambika Kandasamy, “ISIS Latest Radical Group to Destroy Ancient Art,” NBC News, March 2, 2015, accessed September 4, 2015,

Deepa Kumar, “Media, War, and Propaganda: Strategies of Information Management during the 2003 Iraq War,” Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies 3 (March 1, 2006): 48–69.

Melissa Liu and Anne Underwood, “Babylonian Booty,” Newsweek, March 24, 2003.

Sean Loughlin, “Rumsfeld on looting in Iraq: ‘Stuff happens’,” CNN, April 12, 2003, accessed September 26, 2015,

Donald MacLeod and David Walker, “Art Falls Prey to War,” Guardian, April 15, 2003, re-accessed May 20, 2016,

Mahmood Mamdani, “Good Muslim, Bad Muslim,” American Anthropologist 104.3 (2002): 766–775.

P. McGeough, “Rich Past Stripped as Future in Tatters,” Sydney Morning Herald, April 14, 2003.

Beth Nissen, “Iraqi Museum Looted of Priceless Art, Artifacts,” CNN, April 13, 2003, accessed March 19, 2008,

Office of International Information Programs, Pentagon News Briefing, U.S. Department of State, April 11, 2003.

Daniel Pipes, “An Iraqi Tragedy,” New York Post, April 22, 2003.

Susan Pollock and Catherine Lutz, “Archaeology Deployed for the Gulf War,” Critique of Anthropology 14.3 (1994): 263–284.

Lowell Ponte, “Thieves of Time,” FrontPage Magazine, April 14, 2003, accessed April 15, 2003,

Nikolas Rose and Peter Miller, “Political Power beyond the State: Problematics of Government,” The British Journal of Sociology, 43 (June 2, 1992): 173–205.

Tim Russert, “Interview with Donald Rumsfeld,” NBC Meet the Press. NBC, April 13, 2003.

Carol Schwalbe, “Remembering our shared past: Visually framing the Iraq war on US news websites,” Journal of Computer‐Mediated Communication12.1 (October 2006): 264-289.

Edward Schieffelin, “Problematizing Performance,” Ritual, Performance, Media, ed. Felicia Hughes-Freeland (London: Routledge, 1998), 194–207.

Jeremy Seabrook, “New Vistas: Freedom to Loot,” Statesman, May 4, 2003, accessed May 4, 2003.

Jerry Seper, “Looting Probes Eyes Journalists,” Washington Times, April 24, 2003, A01.

Calvin Tomkins, “First Cities,” New Yorker, April 28, 2003.

Tommy Tomlinson, “Culture Has a Way of Breaking Out,” Charlotte Observer, May 4, 2003.

Mike Toner, “Museum Antiquities Looted,” Atlanta Journal Constitution, April 12, 2003.

David Vest,, “It’s Not the Oil, It’s the Art!” Counterpunch, April 25, 2003.

A. N. Wilson, “Looters Need a History Lesson,” This Is London, April 14, 2003.

Kaelen Wilson-Goldie, “Calling It Quits: What Is the Future of Art Education in Baghdad?” Frieze 172 (June-August, 2015), accessed September 8, 2015,

Irene Winter, “What Can Be Done to Recover Iraq’s Art?” Washington Post, April 27, 2003.

Further Suggestions on Specific Periods and Themes:

For analyses of Napoléon’s program to plunder Italy’s cultural glory see Patricia Mainardi, “Assuring the Empire of the Future,” Art Journal 48.2 (1989): 155–167; Jeanette Greenfield, “British and Other European Practice,” The Return of Cultural Treasures (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), 97–115; and Andrew McClellan, “The Revolutionary Louvre,” Inventing the Louvre (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 91–123. McClellan also analyzes the importance of this set of works for the development of the Louvre as France’s national symbol and for France as a leader in art production. Another account of the plunder, somewhat more sympathetic to the French, is offered by Francis Haskell, Rediscoveries in Art: Some Aspects of Taste, Fashion, and Collecting in England and France (Ithaca, NY; Cornell University Press, 1976), 53–57.

On the founding of the Metropolitan Museum of Art as a tool for social control, political pacification, and national representation, see Calvin Tomkins, Merchants and Masterpieces: The Story of the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York: Henry Holt, 1989); also see Jason Felch and Ralph Frammolino, Chasing Aphrodite: The hunt for looted antiquities at the world’s richest museum (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2011).

For performance theory and its connection (or destruction) of cultural identity, see Edward Schieffelin, “Performance and the Cultural Construction of Reality,” American Ethnologist 12.4 (1985): 707–724; Judith Butler, Excitable Speech (London: Routledge, 1997); Richard Schechner, Performance Theory (London: Routledge, 2003 [1977]); Keith Brown, “Macedonian Culture and Its Audiences,” in Ritual, Performance, Media, ed. Felicia Hughes-Freeland (London: Routledge, 1998), 160–176.

Scholarly inquiries into the emptying of the Iraq Museum that came out years after the fall of Baghdad provide information on the extent of the looting, the objects affected, and recovery efforts. See, for example, Milbry Polk and Angela Schuster, The Looting of the Iraq Museum, Baghdad: The lost legacy of ancient Mesopotamia (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2005); Peter G. Stone, Joanne Farchakh Bajjaly, and Robert Fisk, The Destruction of Cultural Heritage in Iraq, vol. 1 (London: Boydell & Brewer Ltd, 2008).

For a comparative perspective on looting and restoration efforts, see Jeanette Greenfield, The Return of Cultural Treasures (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996); G. J. Rickman, Conquest and Redemption: A history of Jewish assets from the Holocaust (New York: Transaction Books, 2006); E. Simpson, ed., The Spoils of War: World War II and Its Aftermath—The Loss, Reappearance and Recovery of Cultural Property (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1997).